The World’s First Hardware(世上第一批硬件)


The World’s First Hardware

From:
http://www.garena.com/forum/viewthread.php?tid=413412&extra=page%3D1

筒子們、童鞋們,Win 7已經面世,相信很快會引起電腦軟硬件行業的另一次飛躍。將來的電腦世界將是什麼樣子,我們未必知道。但估計只會是更小巧、更精細、更簡便等等。

現在,是時候來回顧一下曾經是世界第一,讓人贊嘆不已的牛x硬件!!!!
(英文為原文,中文為筆者YY的…)

The World’s First RAM: (內存)
這就是內存的祖先了…看到他的樣子,你覺得應該叫它做「晶片」,還是「電路版」比較合適…50年後的今天,內存的容量以GB計…

Arguably the first (writable) random access memory was Magnetic Core Memory (also called Ferrite-Core Memory) and was invented in 1951 as a result of work done by An Wang at Harvard University’s Computation Lab and Jay Forrester at MIT.

Core memory was a family of related technologies that used the magnetic properties of materials to give them a similar functionality to transistors. They stored their information using the polarity of tiny, magnetic ceramic rings with wires threaded through them. Unlike today’s RAM, core memory could keep its information even after the power was turned off.

Core memory was common until it was replaced by integrated silicon RAM chips in the 1970s. The “core” in core memory is why a memory dump is called a “core dump” even today.

The World’s First Hard-Disk: (硬盤/硬碟)
1950年代,這個存儲器的容量是4.4MB…在大家買硬盤已經動輒以TB計時,當年的容量僅以MB計,而且是超大塊頭…
PS: 1TB = 1000GB = 1000*1000MB = 1000*1000*1000KB

The IBM Model 350 Disk File was the first hard disk drive and was part of the IBM 305 RAMAC computer that IBM started delivering in 1956 (mainly intended for business accounting). It had 50 24-inch discs that together could store about 4.4 MB of data. The Model 350 spun at 1200 rpm, had a data transfer rate of 8,800 characters per second and an access time of approximately one second.

The World’s First Selectron Tube: (旭電管)
上萬能的「維基百科」查了一下資料,原來這個叫「旭電管」的東東,是很早期用來存儲資料的…
Wiki: “The Selectron was an early form of digital computer memory developed by Jan A. Rajchman”

The Selectron tube had a capacity of 256 to 4096 bits (32 to 512 bytes). The 4096-bit Selectron was 10 inches long and 3 inches wide. Originally developed in 1946, the memory storage device proved expensive and suffered from production problems, so it never became a success.

The World’s First Punch Cards: (打孔卡)
這個東東…有人知道是怎麼實際應用到電腦領域的嗎…文中說是在1970年前廣泛使用,現在是古董級…

Early computers often used punch cards for input both of programs and data. Punch cards were in common use until the mid-1970s. It should be noted that the use of punch cards predates computers. They were used as early as 1725 in the textile industry (for controlling mechanized textile looms).

The World’s First Punch Tape: (打孔胶帶)
同樣的,完全沒見過這個在電腦上如何應用…(看來我還很年輕…嘿~)

Same as with punch cards, punched tape was originally pioneered by the textile industry for use with mechanized looms. For computers, punch tape could be used for data input but also as a medium to output data. Each row on the tape represented one character.

The World’s First Magnetic Drum Memory: (磁鼓存儲器)
1950年代,這個存儲器的容量是10KB…現在連裝個Word文檔都動輒30KB…

Invented all the way back in 1932 (in Austria), it was widely used in the 1950s and 60s as the main working memory of computers. In the mid-1950s, magnetic drum memory had a capacity of around 10 KB.

The World’s First LaserDisc: (雷射唱片或影碟片)
估計很多人家裡還保留著這種碟片吧。在CD/DVD還未面世前,筆者就經常花1米2米去看影片,放的就是這種雷射片。當時商家還大字標題寫道:「雷射影片聲畫質量媲美電影現場」。

We mention it here mainly because it was the precursor to the CD-ROM and other optical storage solutions. It was mainly used for movies. The first commercially available laserdisc system was available on the market late in 1978 (then called Laser Videodisc and the more funkily branded DiscoVision) and were 11.81 inches (30 cm) in diameter. The discs could have up to 60 minutes of audio/video on each side. The first laserdiscs had entirely analog content. The basic technology behind laserdiscs was invented all the way back in 1958.

The World’s First Floppy Disks: (軟盤/磁碟)
最記得的是,當年用超級任天堂來玩遊戲時,要用4張盤來裝,當時是說是一共32MB。後來接觸電腦才知道,一張盤也就1.44MB…

現在還有人留存這個軟盤嗎?以往的電腦標配,現在最新的電腦都省略了~~~除了少數「食古不化」的政府單位,也沒有多少人會拿來用。

The diskette, or floppy disk (named so because they were flexible), was invented by IBM and in common use from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s. The first floppy disks were 8 inches, and later in came 5.25 and 3.5-inch formats. The first floppy disk, introduced in 1971, had a capacity of 79.7 kB, and was read-only. A read-write version came a year later.

The World’s First Magnetic Tape: (磁帶)
這個發明的壽命,算是以上幾種之中最長的。直至今日,仍然是許多企業備份數據的首選。便宜及容易大是其經久不衰的原因之一。

但看看下面的那種傳輸速度,7200字每秒…若用來傳送現在數以GB計算的數據,估計所有的IT人員都會吐血而亡…

Magnetic tape was first used for data storage in 1951. The tape device was called UNISERVO and was the main I/O device on the UNIVAC I computer. The effective transfer rate for the UNISERVO was about 7,200 characters per second. The tapes were metal and 1200 feet long (365 meters) and therefore very heavy.

1 則迴響

  1. bakingmaniac said,

    十月 31, 2009 於 21:59

    想當年中一電腦都是讀這些「進化史」呢!


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